Due to a generally lower body weight, less body fluid (or volume of distribution), more body fat, smaller livers, and less alcohol dehydrogenase (the enzyme which breaks down alcohol to acetaldehyde in the stomach and liver) women are advised to drink less alcohol than men. Also the organs and tissues of women are more susceptible to the toxic effects of acetaldehyde before it is broken down into C02 and water. In the United States, women are advised to consume up to 1 drink a day rather than up to 2 drinks a day, which is advised for men.
Find out more about how alcohol can effect you from our interactive female body
Find out more about alcohol and breast cancer (Click for more information)
Planning a Pregnancy
Drinking more than once or twice a week, or more than one or two drinks each time, can affect the menstrual cycle and fertility levels. It is also known that mothers are often not aware for the first few weeks that they are pregnant, hence by not drinking alcohol while trying to conceive,the risk of exposing the foetus to alcohol during the critical early development is avoided.
Drinking when pregnant
According to the CDC, as well as the US Surgeon General, "There is no known safe amount of alcohol to drink while pregnant. There is also no safe time to drink during pregnancy and no safe kind of alcohol". According tothe American Academy of Pediatrics, "There is no safe amount of alcohol when a woman is pregnant. Research evidence is that even small amounts of alcohol wjile pregnant can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, prematurity, or sudden infant death syndrome".
The US Dietary Guidelines state that pregnancy is one of the circumstances under which people should not drink:, 'Women who are pregnant or who may be pregnant. Drinking during pregnancy, especially in the first few months of pregnancy, may result in negative behavioral or neurological consequences in the offspring. No safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy has been established".
As no threshold of safe drinking when pregnant has been established, the best advice if pregnant is not to drink. In the first three months, heavy drinking can damage the developing organs and nervous system. Continued heavy drinking for the remaining six months can have the additional effects of retarding growth and development, which can lead to both behavioural and physical problems for the baby once it is born, known as FASD. A good diet, sufficient fluid intake, reducing caffeine intake and not smoking during pregnancy will also help provide a healthy environment for the unborn baby.
Alcohol clears from a mother’s milk at the rate of around one drink every two hours. So it is best to avoid alcohol before breastfeeding, or to plan ahead and express milk if drinking alcohol later. Alcohol in the mother’s bloodstream passes into breast milk and can cause irritability, poor feeding and sleep disturbance. It can also reduces the amount of breast milk produced.
The US Dietary Guidelines state that "Because of the substantial evidence clearly demonstrating the health benefits of breastfeeding, occasionally consuming an alcoholic drink does not warrant stopping breastfeeding. However, breastfeeding women should be very cautious about drinking alcohol, if they choose to drink at all. If the infant’s breastfeeding behavior is well established, consistent, and predictable (no earlier than at 3 months of age), a mother may consume a single alcoholic drink if she then waits at least 4 hours before breastfeeding. Alternatively, she may express breast milk before consuming the drink and feed the expressed milk to her infant later".
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a term which covers a range of behavioural and physical problems which may result from heavy drinking during pregnancy.
They have been classified as:
FASD is not genetic, inherited or curable. Not all women who drink during pregnancy will have a child with FASD but research shows that drinking alcohol heavily or binge drinking regularly during pregnancy increases the chance of the fetus being harmed. Some of the behavioural and physical problems identified include:
Find out more about FASD in the US (click here)
Alcohol use and successful aging
Among 13,894 women in the Nurses’ Health Study, investigators prospectively examined alcohol use assessed at midlife in relation to ‘successful ageing’, which was defined as survival to age 70 years, not having a major chronic disease (such as coronary disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes), and having no major cognitive impairment, physical impairment, or mental health problems. Only 11% of the women met these criteria. The results indicate that moderate drinkers, especially those consuming wine and drinking regularly, were more likely to exhibit successful ageing. For average amount consumed, the largest benefit (an increase of 28%) was among women who reported 15 - 30 g of alcohol per day (an average of just over 1 to 2 drinks per day), when compared with non-drinkers. The frequency of drinking was especially important: in comparison with non-drinkers, women who drank only on 1 to 2 days per week had little increase in their risk of successful ageing, but those drinking on at least 5 days per week had almost a 50% greater chance of successful ageing.
(Sun Q et al. Alcohol consumption at midlife and successful ageing in women: A prospective cohort analysis in the Nurses’ Health Study. PLoS Med 8(9): e1001090. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001090).
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